Tag Content
UniProt Accession
Theoretical PI
Molecular Weight
12483 Da  
Genbank Nucleotide ID
Genbank Protein ID
Gene Name
Gene Synonyms/Alias
Tctel1, Tctex-1, Tctex1 
Protein Name
Dynein light chain Tctex-type 1 
Protein Synonyms/Alias
Activator of G-protein signaling 2;AGS2 T-complex testis-specific protein 1; TCTEX-1; 
Mus musculus (Mouse) 
NCBI Taxonomy ID
Chromosome Location
View in Ensembl genome browser  
Function in Stage
Function in Cell Type
Probability (GAS) of Function in Spermatogenesis
The probability was calculated by GAS algorithm, ranging from 0 to 1. The closer it is to 1, the more possibly it functions in spermatogenesis.
Temporarily unavailable 
Abstract of related literatures
1. The t complex of the mouse has an important role in male germ cell development and function. Multiple mutations in the t complex interact to alter profoundly the transmission ratio of t complex-bearing sperm or to cause complete sterility or semisterility. We have isolated a multigene family, tctex-1, by screening a testicular cell cDNA library with two reciprocally subtracted testicular cDNA probes. The tctex-1 gene family produces an abundant, virtually germ cell-specific transcript that is 8-fold overexpressed in t homozygotes. The aberrant expression of tctex-1 is solely dependent on the t haplotype genes and occurs only in germ cells. The chromosomal location and pattern of expression of tctex-1 make it a candidate for involvement in male sterility. PMID: [2570638] 

2. This study describes comprehensive polling of transcription start and termination sites and analysis of previously unidentified full-length complementary DNAs derived from the mouse genome. We identify the 5' and 3' boundaries of 181,047 transcripts with extensive variation in transcripts arising from alternative promoter usage, splicing, and polyadenylation. There are 16,247 new mouse protein-coding transcripts, including 5154 encoding previously unidentified proteins. Genomic mapping of the transcriptome reveals transcriptional forests, with overlapping transcription on both strands, separated by deserts in which few transcripts are observed. The data provide a comprehensive platform for the comparative analysis of mammalian transcriptional regulation in differentiation and development. PMID: [16141072] 

3. The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline. PMID: [15489334] 

4. The cytoplasmic dynein light chain Tctex1 is a candidate for one of the distorter products involved in the non-Mendelian transmission of mouse t haplotypes. It has been unclear, however, how the t-specific mutations in this protein, which is found associated with cytoplasmic dynein in many tissues, could result in a male germ cell-specific phenotype. Here, we demonstrate that Tctex1 is not only a cytoplasmic dynein component, but is also present both in mouse sperm and Chlamydomonas flagella. Genetic and biochemical dissection of the Chlamydomonas flagellum reveal that Tctex1 is a previously undescribed component of inner dynein arm I1. Combined with the recent identification of another putative t complex distorter, Tctex2, within the outer dynein arm, these results support the hypothesis that transmission ratio distortion (meiotic drive) of mouse t haplotypes involves dysfunction of both flagellar inner and outer dynein arms but does not require the cytoplasmic isozyme. PMID: [9490726] 

5. Heterotrimeric G-protein signaling systems are activated via cell surface receptors possessing the seven-membrane span motif. Several observations suggest the existence of other modes of stimulus input to heterotrimeric G-proteins. As part of an overall effort to identify such proteins we developed a functional screen based upon the pheromone response pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We identified two mammalian proteins, AGS2 and AGS3 (activators of G-protein signaling), that activated the pheromone response pathway at the level of heterotrimeric G-proteins in the absence of a typical receptor. beta-galactosidase reporter assays in yeast strains expressing different Galpha subunits (Gpa1, G(s)alpha, G(i)alpha(2(Gpa1(1-41))), G(i)alpha(3(Gpa1(1-41))), Galpha(16(Gpa1(1-41)))) indicated that AGS proteins selectively activated G-protein heterotrimers. AGS3 was only active in the G(i)alpha(2) and G(i)alpha(3) genetic backgrounds, whereas AGS2 was active in each of the genetic backgrounds except Gpa1. In protein interaction studies, AGS2 selectively associated with Gbetagamma, whereas AGS3 bound Galpha and exhibited a preference for GalphaGDP versus GalphaGTPgammaS. Subsequent studies indicated that the mechanisms of G-protein activation by AGS2 and AGS3 were distinct from that of a typical G-protein-coupled receptor. AGS proteins provide unexpected mechanisms for input to heterotrimeric G-protein signaling pathways. AGS2 and AGS3 may also serve as novel binding partners for Galpha and Gbetagamma that allow the subunits to subserve functions that do not require initial heterotrimer formation. PMID: [10559191] 

6. The minus-ended microtubule motor cytoplasmic dynein contains a number of low molecular weight light chains including the 14-kDa Tctex-1. The assembly of Tctex-1 in the dynein complex and its function are largely unknown. Using partially deuterated, (15)N,(13)C-labeled protein samples and transverse relaxation-optimized NMR spectroscopic techniques, the secondary structure and overall topology of Tctex-1 were determined based on the backbone nuclear Overhauser effect pattern and the chemical shift values of the protein. The data showed that Tctex-1 adopts a structure remarkably similar to that of the 8-kDa light chain of the motor complex (DLC8), although the two light chains share no amino acid sequence homology. We further demonstrated that Tctex-1 binds directly to the intermediate chain (DIC) of dynein. The Tctex-1 binding site on DIC was mapped to a 19-residue fragment immediately following the second alternative splicing site of DIC. Titration of Tctex-1 with a peptide derived from DIC, which contains a consensus sequence R/KR/KXXR/K found in various Tctex-1 target proteins, indicated that Tctex-1 binds to its targets in a manner similar to that of DLC8. The experimental results presented in this study suggest that Tctex-1 is likely to be a specific cargo adaptor for the dynein motor complex. PMID: [11148215] 

7. The Tctex1/Tctex2 family of dynein light chains associates with the intermediate chains at the base of the soluble dynein particle. These components are essential for dynein assembly and participate in specific motor-cargo interactions. To further address the role of these light chains in dynein activity, the structural and biochemical properties of several members of this polypeptide class were examined. Gel filtration chromatography and native gel electrophoresis indicate that recombinant Chlamydomonas flagellar Tctex1 exists as a dimer in solution. Furthermore, yeast two-hybrid analysis suggests that this association also occurs in vivo. In contrast, both murine and Chlamydomonas Tctex2 are monomeric. To investigate protein-protein interactions involving these light chains, outer arm dynein from Chlamydomonas flagella was cross-linked using dimethylpimelimidate. Immunoblot analysis of the resulting products revealed the interaction of LC2 (Tctex2) with LC6, which is closely related to the highly conserved LC8 protein found in many enzyme systems, including dynein. Northern dot blot analysis demonstrated that Tctex1/Tctex2 family light chains are differentially expressed both in a tissue-specific and developmentally regulated manner in humans. These data provide further support for the existence of functionally distinct populations of cytoplasmic dynein with differing light chain content. PMID: [11278908] 

8. The mechanisms that regulate symmetric, proliferative divisions versus asymmetric, neurogenic divisions of mammalian neural precursors are still not well understood. We found that Lfc (Arhgef2), a Rho-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor that interacts with spindle microtubules, and its negative regulator Tctex-1 (Dynlt1) determine the genesis of neurons from precursors in the embryonic murine cortex. Specifically, genetic knockdown of Arhgef2 in cortical precursors either in culture or in vivo inhibited neurogenesis and maintained cells as cycling radial precursors. Conversely, genetic knockdown of Dynlt1 in radial precursors promoted neurogenesis and depleted cycling cortical precursors. Coincident silencing of these two genes indicated that Tctex-1 normally inhibits the genesis of neurons from radial precursors by antagonizing the proneurogenic actions of Lfc. Moreover, Lfc and Tctex-1 were required to determine the orientation of mitotic precursor cell divisions in vivo. Thus, Lfc and Tctex-1 interact to regulate cortical neurogenesis, potentially by regulating mitotic spindle orientation. PMID: [19448628] 

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Plays a role in neuronal morhpogenesis; the function isindependent of cytoplasmic dynein and seems to be coupled toregulation of the actin cytoskeleton by enhancing Rac1 activity.The function in neurogenesis may be regulated by association witha G-protein beta-gamma dimer. May function as a receptor-independent activator of heterotrimeric G-protein signaling; theactivation appears to be independent of a nucleotide exchange.Plays a role in regulating neurogenesis; inhibits the genesis ofneurons from precursor cells during cortical developmentpresumably by antagonizing ARHGEF2. Involved in the regulation ofmitotic spindle orientation. 
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Subcellular Location
Golgi apparatus (By similarity). Cytoplasm(By similarity). Cytoplasm, cytoskeleton, spindle (By similarity).Note=Localizes to mitotic spindles (By similarity). 
Tissue Specificity
High level in testis (germ cell-specific).Expressed in sperm (at protein level). 200-fold lower in liver,brain, heart, spleen, and kidney. Levels in thymus and twoembryonal carcinoma cell lines were several-fold higher than thislow constitutive level. 
Gene Ontology
GO IDGO termEvidence
GO:0005868 C:cytoplasmic dynein complex ISS:UniProtKB.
GO:0005794 C:Golgi apparatus IEA:UniProtKB-SubCell.
GO:0005874 C:microtubule IEA:UniProtKB-KW.
GO:0001917 C:photoreceptor inner segment IDA:UniProtKB.
GO:0005819 C:spindle IEA:UniProtKB-SubCell.
GO:0003774 F:motor activity IEA:UniProtKB-KW.
GO:0051301 P:cell division IEA:UniProtKB-KW.
GO:0000132 P:establishment of mitotic spindle orientation IMP:UniProtKB.
GO:0007067 P:mitosis IEA:UniProtKB-KW.
GO:0050768 P:negative regulation of neurogenesis IMP:UniProtKB.
GO:0008277 P:regulation of G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway IMP:UniProtKB.
GO:0006810 P:transport IEA:UniProtKB-KW.
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IPR005334;    Tctex.
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PF03645;    Tctex-1;    1.
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Created Date
Record Type
GAS predicted 
Sequence Annotation
CHAIN         1    113       Dynein light chain Tctex-type 1.
REGION       41    113       Interaction with GNB1 (By similarity).
MOD_RES       1      1       N-acetylmethionine (By similarity).
VARIANT      21     21       V -> A.
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Nucleotide Sequence
Length: 680 bp   Go to nucleotide: FASTA
Protein Sequence
Length: 113 bp   Go to amino acid: FASTA
The verified Protein-Protein interaction information
Other Protein-Protein interaction resources
String database  
View Microarray data