Tag Content
UniProt Accession
Theoretical PI
Molecular Weight
29174 Da  
Genbank Nucleotide ID
Genbank Protein ID
Gene Name
Gene Synonyms/Alias
Protein Name
14-3-3 protein epsilon 
Protein Synonyms/Alias
Mus musculus (Mouse) 
NCBI Taxonomy ID
Chromosome Location
View in Ensembl genome browser  
Function in Stage
Function in Cell Type
Probability (GAS) of Function in Spermatogenesis
The probability was calculated by GAS algorithm, ranging from 0 to 1. The closer it is to 1, the more possibly it functions in spermatogenesis.
Temporarily unavailable 
Abstract of related literatures
1. Kidney development is a complex, little understood process based on inductive interactions and intricate epithelial and mesenchymal morphogenesis. Here, we report the use of subtractive hybridization to clone cDNAs expressed in early nephrogenesis. cDNA made from E14.5 mouse kidney was hybridized with adult mouse liver mRNA employing a technique based on labeling the driver mRNA with photoactivatable biotin and using streptavidin to remove RNA:cDNA complexes. An aliquot of the unhybridized cDNA identified several clones including three isolates that proved to be the epsilon isoform of the 14-3-3 gene family that is, among other functions, implicated in protein kinase C regulation. Northern blot analysis showed a 2.0-kb transcript widely present in mouse embryos from E7.5 onward, but, as expected from the subtractive strategy, absent in adult liver. In situ hybridization was carried out on mouse embryos aged E8.5 to E15.5. These showed that, in the E8.5 embryo, the 14-3-3 epsilon gene was expressed throughout the embryo, but that, within a day, expression was more marked in mesenchyme than elsewhere (e.g., epithelial tissue, where it was generally low), although levels in neural tissue rose again by about E12.5. This difference was maintained until E15.5 when expression levels started to drop in most tissues, with those of the nervous system, tooth, and kidney being exceptions. Perhaps the most intriguing feature of the expression pattern, however, was that, while the gene was strongly expressed in early mesenchyme, the level of expression decreased as the mesenchyme differentiated. This change was particularly noted in mesenchymal condensations that would become cartilage, bone, and myotome-derived muscle, in the presumptive muscle layer of the gut, and in the kidney. In this last case, the gene was strongly expressed in stem cells and mesenchyme, but expression levels dropped markedly as early nephrogenic condensates epithelialized. The results as a whole thus argue for the 14-3-3 epsilon isoform playing roles in neural development and in early mesenchyme, with this latter function being lost or replaced as the tissue differentiates. PMID: [7750640] 

2. Low initial response to alcohol has been shown to be among the best predictors of development of alcoholism. A similar phenotypic measure, difference in initial sensitivity to ethanol, has been used for the genetic selection of two mouse strains, the Inbred Long-Sleep (ILS) and Inbred Short-Sleep (ISS) mice, and for the subsequent identification of four quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for alcohol sensitivity. We now report the application of high throughput comparative gene sequencing in the search for genes underlying these four QTLs. To carry out this search, over 1.7 million bases of comparative DNA sequence were generated from 68 candidate genes within the QTL intervals, corresponding to a survey of over 36,000 amino acids. Eight central nervous system genes, located within these QTLs, were identified that contain a total of 36 changes in protein coding sequence. Some of these coding variants are likely to contribute to the phenotypic variation between ILS/ISS animals, including sensitivity to alcohol, providing specific new genetic targets potentially important to the neuronal actions of alcohol. PMID: [11471062] 

3. The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline. PMID: [15489334] 

4. Activation of Rho GTPases by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) mediates a broad range of cytoskeletal alterations that determine cell shape. In the nervous system, Rho GTPases are essential for establishing highly asymmetrical neuronal forms and may fine-tune the shape of dendrites in differentiated neurons. p190RhoGEF is a brain-enriched, RhoA-specific GEF whose highly interactive C-terminal domain provides potential linkage to multiple pathways in the cell. In the present study, a yeast two-hybrid screen was used to identify 14-3-3eta and 14-3-3epsilon as additional binding partners of p190RhoGEF. Interactions between p190RhoGEF and 14-3-3eta were confirmed biochemically and by colocalization of the respective proteins when fused to fluorescent markers and transfected in neuronal cells. We also mapped a unique phosphorylation-independent binding site (I(1370)QAIQNL) in p190RhoGEF. Deletion of the binding site abolished interactions in vitro as well as the ability of 14-3-3eta to alter the cytoplasmic aggregation of p190RhoGEF in cotransfected cells. The findings suggest a potential role for 14-3-3 in modulating p190RhoGEF activity or in linking p190RhoGEF to the activities of other pathways in the neuron. PMID: [11533041] 

5. Heterozygous deletions of 17p13.3 result in the human neuronal migration disorders isolated lissencephaly sequence (ILS) and the more severe Miller-Dieker syndrome (MDS). Mutations in PAFAH1B1 (the gene encoding LIS1) are responsible for ILS and contribute to MDS, but the genetic causes of the greater severity of MDS are unknown. Here, we show that the gene encoding 14-3-3epsilon (YWHAE), one of a family of ubiquitous phosphoserine/threonine-binding proteins, is always deleted in individuals with MDS. Mice deficient in Ywhae have defects in brain development and neuronal migration, similar to defects observed in mice heterozygous with respect to Pafah1b1. Mice heterozygous with respect to both genes have more severe migration defects than single heterozygotes. 14-3-3epsilon binds to CDK5/p35-phosphorylated NUDEL and this binding maintains NUDEL phosphorylation. Similar to LIS1, deficiency of 14-3-3epsilon results in mislocalization of NUDEL and LIS1, consistent with reduction of cytoplasmic dynein function. These results establish a crucial role for 14-3-3epsilon in neuronal development by sustaining the effects of CDK5 phosphorylation and provide a molecular explanation for the differences in severity of human neuronal migration defects with 17p13.3 deletions. PMID: [12796778] 

6. Grb10 is a member of adapter proteins that are thought to play a role in receptor tyrosine kinase-mediated signal transduction. Grb10 expression levels can influence Akt activity, and Grb10 may act as an adapter involved in the relocalization of Akt to the cell membrane. Here we identified 14-3-3 as a binding partner of Grb10 by employing a yeast two-hybrid screen. The 14-3-3.Grb10 interaction requires phosphorylation of Grb10, and only the phosphorylated form of Grb10 co-immunoprecipitates with endogenous 14-3-3. We could identify a putative phosphorylation site in Grb10, which is located in a classical 14-3-3 binding motif, RSVSEN. Mutation of this site in Grb10 diminished binding to 14-3-3. Thus, Grb10 exists in two different states of phosphorylation and complexes with 14-3-3 when phosphorylated on serine 428. We provide evidence that Akt directly binds Grb10 and is able to phosphorylate Grb10 in an in vitro kinase assay. Based on these findings, we propose a regulatory circuitry involving a phosphorylation-regulated complex formation of Grb10 with 14-3-3 and Akt. PMID: [15722337] 

7. Rho family GTPases are key regulators of various physiological processes. Several recent studies indicated that the antagonistic relationship between Rho and Rac is essential for cell polarity and that the Rac activity is negatively regulated by Rho. In this study, we found that Rho-kinase, an effector of Rho, counteracted the Rac GEF STEF-induced Rac1 activation in COS7 cells. Rho-kinase phosphorylated STEF at Thr1662 in vitro, and Y-27632, a Rho-kinase inhibitor, suppressed lysophosphatidic acid-induced phosphorylation of STEF in PC12D cells. STEF interacted with specific molecules such as microtubule-associated protein 1B, and the phosphorylation of STEF by Rho-kinase diminished its interaction with these molecules. STEF promoted nerve growth factor-induced neurite outgrowth in PC12D cells, while the phosphomimic mutant of STEF had a weakened ability to enhance neurite outgrowth. Taken together, these results suggest that the phosphorylation of STEF by Rho-kinase exerts the inhibitory effect on the function of STEF. PMID: [17320046] 

8. A system which consisted of multidimensional liquid chromatography (Yin-yang MDLC) coupled with mass spectrometry was used for the identification of peptides and phosphopeptides. The multidimensional liquid chromatography combines the strong-cation exchange (SCX), strong-anion exchange (SAX), and reverse-phase methods for the separation. Protein digests were first loaded on an SCX column. The flow-through peptides from SCX were collected and further loaded on an SAX column. Both columns were eluted by offline pH steps, and the collected fractions were identified by reverse-phase liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Comprehensive peptide identification was achieved by the Yin-yang MDLC-MS/MS for a 1 mg mouse liver. In total, 14 105 unique peptides were identified with high confidence, including 13 256 unmodified peptides and 849 phosphopeptides with 809 phosphorylated sites. The SCX and SAX in the Yin-Yang system displayed complementary features of binding and separation for peptides. When coupled with reverse-phase liquid chromatography mass spectrometry, the SAX-based method can detect more extremely acidic (pI < 4.0) and phosphorylated peptides, while the SCX-based method detects more relatively basic peptides (pI > 4.0). In total, 134 groups of phosphorylated peptide isoforms were obtained, with common peptide sequences but different phosphorylated states. This unbiased profiling of protein expression and phosphorylation provides a powerful approach to probe protein dynamics, without using any prefractionation and chemical derivation. PMID: [17203969] 

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Adapter protein implicated in the regulation of a largespectrum of both general and specialized signaling pathways. Bindsto a large number of partners, usually by recognition of aphosphoserine or phosphothreonine motif. Binding generally resultsin the modulation of the activity of the binding partner. 
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Subcellular Location
Cytoplasm (By similarity). Melanosome (Bysimilarity). 
Tissue Specificity
Gene Ontology
GO IDGO termEvidence
GO:0033267 C:axon part IEA:Compara.
GO:0005871 C:kinesin complex IEA:Compara.
GO:0042470 C:melanosome IEA:UniProtKB-SubCell.
GO:0005739 C:mitochondrion IDA:MGI.
GO:0021987 P:cerebral cortex development IMP:MGI.
GO:0021766 P:hippocampus development IMP:MGI.
GO:0035308 P:negative regulation of protein dephosphorylation IDA:MGI.
GO:0001764 P:neuron migration IMP:MGI.
GO:0006605 P:protein targeting IDA:MGI.
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IPR000308;    14-3-3.
IPR023409;    14-3-3_CS.
IPR023410;    14-3-3_domain.
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PF00244;    14-3-3;    1.
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SM00101;    14_3_3;    1.
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PS00796;    1433_1;    1.
PS00797;    1433_2;    1.
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PR00305;    1433ZETA.;   
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Created Date
Record Type
GAS predicted 
Sequence Annotation
CHAIN         1    255       14-3-3 protein epsilon.
SITE         57     57       Interaction with phosphoserine on
                             interacting protein (By similarity).
SITE        130    130       Interaction with phosphoserine on
                             interacting protein (By similarity).
MOD_RES       1      1       N-acetylmethionine (By similarity).
MOD_RES      38     38       Phosphothreonine (By similarity).
MOD_RES      50     50       N6-acetyllysine (By similarity).
MOD_RES      69     69       N6-acetyllysine (By similarity).
MOD_RES     118    118       N6-acetyllysine (By similarity).
MOD_RES     123    123       N6-acetyllysine (By similarity).
MOD_RES     210    210       Phosphoserine.
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Nucleotide Sequence
Length: 1736 bp   Go to nucleotide: FASTA
Protein Sequence
Length: 255 bp   Go to amino acid: FASTA
The verified Protein-Protein interaction information
Other Protein-Protein interaction resources
String database  
View Microarray data