0.907329085 The probability was calculated by GAS algorithm, ranging from 0 to 1. The closer it is to 1, the more possibly it functions in spermatogenesis.
Abstract of related literatures
1. The proteasome is a large multicatalytic proteinase that plays a role in the generation of peptides for presentation by major histocompatibility complex class I molecules. The 20S proteolytic core of mammalian proteasomes is assembled from a group of 17 protein subunits that generate a distinctive pattern of spots upon two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The genes for most of these subunits have been cloned from humans and rats. We isolated cDNA clones for the mouse orthologues of ten of the subunits [PSMA1 (C2), PSMA2 (C3), PSMA3 (C8), PSMA4 (C9), PSMA5 (ZETA), PSMA6 (IOTA), PSMA7 (C6-I), PSMB2 (C7-I), PSMB3 (C10-II), and PSMB5 (X)] to complete the cloning of all of the mouse subunits. Using antisera raised against these subunits or their orthologues, we verified the identity of these proteins by two-dimensional NEPHGE-PAGE. PMID: 
2. This study describes comprehensive polling of transcription start and termination sites and analysis of previously unidentified full-length complementary DNAs derived from the mouse genome. We identify the 5' and 3' boundaries of 181,047 transcripts with extensive variation in transcripts arising from alternative promoter usage, splicing, and polyadenylation. There are 16,247 new mouse protein-coding transcripts, including 5154 encoding previously unidentified proteins. Genomic mapping of the transcriptome reveals transcriptional forests, with overlapping transcription on both strands, separated by deserts in which few transcripts are observed. The data provide a comprehensive platform for the comparative analysis of mammalian transcriptional regulation in differentiation and development. PMID: 
3. The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline. PMID: 
4. Chronic infection of hepatitis virus B (HBV) has been proven to be one of the most important risk factors of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). HBx has been shown to function in the viral life cycle and the development of HCC. Recently, we have reported that HBx transgenic mice (p21-HBx), generated by gene knockin, develop HCC at the age of 18 months. To further study the function of HBx during the development of HCC in vivo, we performed proteomic analysis of the transgenic and wild-type control mice. The combination of 2-DE and MALDI-TOF MS revealed that proteasome subunits (PSMA6, PSMB4, PSMC2 and PSMD12) were up-regulated in tumor tissues of the p21-HBx transgenic mice. Cathepsin B, ubiquinol-cytochrome C reductase core protein 1 and an ATP-dependent caseinolytic protease, which were involved in the cellular proteolytic process, were also found increased in tumors. The results were confirmed in tumors of transgenic mice and HCCs of human using RT-PCR. All these results suggested that the strengthened ubiquitin-proteasome and lysosomal pathway might contribute to the development of HBx-related HCC. PMID: 
5. Metazoans employ reversible tyrosine phosphorylation to regulate innumerable biological processes. Thus, the large-scale identification of tyrosine phosphorylation sites from primary tissues is an essential step toward a molecular systems understanding of dynamic regulation in vivo. The relative paucity of phosphotyrosine has greatly limited its identification in large-scale phosphoproteomic experiments. However, using antiphosphotyrosine peptide immunoprecipitations, we report the largest study to date of tyrosine phosphorylation sites from primary tissue, identifying 414 unique tyrosine phosphorylation sites from murine brain. To measure the conservation of phosphorylated tyrosines and their surrounding residues, we constructed a computational pipeline and identified patterns of conservation within the signature of phosphotyrosine. PMID: 
The proteasome is a multicatalytic proteinase complexwhich is characterized by its ability to cleave peptides with Arg,Phe, Tyr, Leu, and Glu adjacent to the leaving group at neutral orslightly basic pH. The proteasome has an ATP-dependent proteolyticactivity.