Tag Content
UniProt Accession
Theoretical PI
Molecular Weight
41763 Da  
Genbank Nucleotide ID
Genbank Protein ID
Gene Name
Gene Synonyms/Alias
Protein Name
G kinase-anchoring protein 1 
Protein Synonyms/Alias
cGMP-dependent protein kinase-anchoring protein of 42 kDa; 
Mus musculus (Mouse) 
NCBI Taxonomy ID
Chromosome Location
View in Ensembl genome browser  
Function in Stage
Function in Cell Type
Probability (GAS) of Function in Spermatogenesis
The probability was calculated by GAS algorithm, ranging from 0 to 1. The closer it is to 1, the more possibly it functions in spermatogenesis.
Temporarily unavailable 
Abstract of related literatures
1. cGMP-dependent protein kinase (cGK) is a major cellular receptor of cGMP and plays important roles in cGMP-dependent signal transduction pathways. To isolate the components of the cGMP/cGK signaling pathway such as substrates and regulatory proteins of cGK, we employed the yeast two-hybrid system using cGK-Ialpha as a bait and isolated a novel male germ cell-specific 42-kDa protein, GKAP42 (42-kDa cGMP-dependent protein kinase anchoring protein). Although the N-terminal region (amino acids 1-66) of cGK-Ialpha is sufficient for the association with GKAP42, GKAP42 could not interact with cGK-Ibeta, cGK-II, or cAMP-dependent protein kinase. GKAP42 mRNA is specifically expressed in testis, where it is restricted to the spermatocytes and early round spermatids. Endogenous cGK-I is co-immunoprecipitated with anti-GKAP42 antibody from mouse testis tissue, suggesting that cGK-I physiologically interacts with GKAP42. Immunocytochemical observations revealed that GKAP42 is localized to the Golgi complex and that cGK-Ialpha is co-localized to the Golgi complex when coexpressed with GKAP42. Although both cGK-Ialpha and -Ibeta, but not cAMP-dependent protein kinase, phosphorylated GKAP42 in vitro, GKAP42 was a good substrate only for cGK-Ialpha in intact cells, suggesting that the association with kinase protein is required for the phosphorylation in vivo. Finally, we demonstrated that the kinase-deficient mutant of cGK-Ialpha stably associates with GKAP42 and that binding of cGMP to cGK-Ialpha facilitates their release from GKAP42. These findings suggest that GKAP42 functions as an anchoring protein for cGK-Ialpha and that cGK-Ialpha may participate in germ cell development through phosphorylation of Golgi-associated proteins such as GKAP42. PMID: [10671526] 

2. The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline. PMID: [15489334] 

3. This study describes comprehensive polling of transcription start and termination sites and analysis of previously unidentified full-length complementary DNAs derived from the mouse genome. We identify the 5' and 3' boundaries of 181,047 transcripts with extensive variation in transcripts arising from alternative promoter usage, splicing, and polyadenylation. There are 16,247 new mouse protein-coding transcripts, including 5154 encoding previously unidentified proteins. Genomic mapping of the transcriptome reveals transcriptional forests, with overlapping transcription on both strands, separated by deserts in which few transcripts are observed. The data provide a comprehensive platform for the comparative analysis of mammalian transcriptional regulation in differentiation and development. PMID: [16141072] 

4. Cardiac fibroblasts regulate tissue repair and remodeling in the heart. To quantify transcript levels in these cells we performed a comprehensive gene expression study using serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE). Among 110,169 sequenced tags we could identify 30,507 unique transcripts. A comparison of SAGE data from cardiac fibroblasts with data derived from total mouse heart revealed a number of fibroblast-specific genes. Cardiac fibroblasts expressed a specific collection of collagens, matrix proteins and metalloproteinases, growth factors, and components of signaling pathways. The NO/cGMP signaling pathway was represented by the mRNAs for alpha(1) and beta(1) subunits of guanylyl cyclase, cGMP-dependent protein kinase type I (cGK I), and, interestingly, the G-kinase-anchoring protein GKAP42. The expression of cGK I was verified by RT-PCR and Western blot. To establish a functional role for cGK I in cardiac fibroblasts we studied its effect on cell proliferation. Selective activation of cGK I with a cGMP analog inhibited the proliferation of serum-stimulated cardiac fibroblasts, which express cGK I, but not higher passage fibroblasts, which contain no detectable cGK I. Currently, our data suggest that cGK I mediates the inhibitory effects of the NO/cGMP pathway on cardiac fibroblast growth. Furthermore the SAGE library of transcripts expressed in cardiac fibroblasts provides a basis for future investigations into the pathological regulatory mechanisms underlying cardiac fibrosis. PMID: [15028281] 

5. Protein phosphorylation is a complex network of signaling and regulatory events that affects virtually every cellular process. Our understanding of the nature of this network as a whole remains limited, largely because of an array of technical challenges in the isolation and high-throughput sequencing of phosphorylated species. In the present work, we demonstrate that a combination of tandem phosphopeptide enrichment methods, high performance MS, and optimized database search/data filtering strategies is a powerful tool for surveying the phosphoproteome. Using our integrated analytical platform, we report the identification of 5,635 nonredundant phosphorylation sites from 2,328 proteins from mouse liver. From this list of sites, we extracted both novel and known motifs for specific Ser/Thr kinases including a "dipolar" motif. We also found that C-terminal phosphorylation was more frequent than at any other location and that the distribution of potential kinases for these sites was unique. Finally, we identified double phosphorylation motifs that may be involved in ordered phosphorylation. PMID: [17242355] 

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Subcellular Location
Golgi apparatus. 
Tissue Specificity
Predominantly expressed in testis, where it isrestricted to spermatocytes and early round spermatids. Alsoexpressed in cardiac fibroblasts. 
Gene Ontology
GO IDGO termEvidence
GO:0005794 C:Golgi apparatus IDA:MGI.
GO:0007199 P:G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway coupled to cGMP nucleotide second messenger TAS:MGI.
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IPR026109;    GKAP1.
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PR02083;    GKINASEAP1.;   
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Created Date
Record Type
GAS predicted 
Sequence Annotation
CHAIN         1    366       G kinase-anchoring protein 1.
COILED       47     77       Potential.
COILED      128    160       Potential.
COILED      250    299       Potential.
COILED      326    353       Potential.
MOD_RES      23     23       Phosphoserine.
MOD_RES      25     25       Phosphoserine.
MOD_RES      27     27       Phosphoserine.
MOD_RES     106    106       Phosphoserine; by PKG (Probable).
MUTAGEN      86     86       S->A: Does not affect phosphorylation by
MUTAGEN     106    106       S->A: Affects phosphorylation by PKG.
MUTAGEN     178    178       T->A: Does not affect phosphorylation by
CONFLICT     26     26       G -> V (in Ref. 3; BAB30326).
CONFLICT    166    166       K -> I (in Ref. 3; BAB30326).
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Nucleotide Sequence
Length: 1380 bp   Go to nucleotide: FASTA
Protein Sequence
Length: 366 bp   Go to amino acid: FASTA
The verified Protein-Protein interaction information
Gene Symbol Ref Databases
Other Protein-Protein interaction resources
String database  
View Microarray data