0.92525645 The probability was calculated by GAS algorithm, ranging from 0 to 1. The closer it is to 1, the more possibly it functions in spermatogenesis.
Abstract of related literatures
1. This study describes comprehensive polling of transcription start and termination sites and analysis of previously unidentified full-length complementary DNAs derived from the mouse genome. We identify the 5' and 3' boundaries of 181,047 transcripts with extensive variation in transcripts arising from alternative promoter usage, splicing, and polyadenylation. There are 16,247 new mouse protein-coding transcripts, including 5154 encoding previously unidentified proteins. Genomic mapping of the transcriptome reveals transcriptional forests, with overlapping transcription on both strands, separated by deserts in which few transcripts are observed. The data provide a comprehensive platform for the comparative analysis of mammalian transcriptional regulation in differentiation and development. PMID: 
2. The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline. PMID: 
3. Highly ATP- and GTP-specific isoforms of succinyl-CoA synthetase in pigeon incorporate the same alpha-subunit, but different beta-subunits (Johnson, J. D., Muhonen, W. W., and Lambeth, D. O. (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273, 27573-27579). The sequences of the mature subunits were determined by methods based on reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The 306-residue mature alpha-subunit in pigeon shows >88% identity to its homologues in pig and rat. The sequences of the mature ATP- and GTP-specific beta-subunits (A-beta and G-beta, respectively) in pigeon are 54% identical. These sequences were used to identify expressed sequence tags for human and mouse that were highly homologous to G-beta and A-beta, respectively. The sequences for mature A-beta and G-beta in mouse and human were completed and verified by polymerase chain reaction. The sequence of A-beta in pig was also obtained. The mammalian A-beta sequences show >89% identity to each other; the G-beta sequences are similarly related. However, pairwise comparisons of the A-beta and G-beta sequences revealed <53% identity. Alignment with two sequences of the beta-subunit in Caenorhabditis elegans suggests that the A-beta and G-beta genes arose by duplication early in the evolution of multicellular eucaryotes. The expression of A-beta is strong in numerous mouse and human tissues, which suggests that ATP-specific succinyl-CoA synthetase also plays an important role in species throughout the animal kingdom. PMID: 
4. Activity-dependent protein phosphorylation is a highly dynamic yet tightly regulated process essential for cellular signaling. Although recognized as critical for neuronal functions, the extent and stoichiometry of phosphorylation in brain cells remain undetermined. In this study, we resolved activity-dependent changes in phosphorylation stoichiometry at specific sites in distinct subcellular compartments of brain cells. Following highly sensitive phosphopeptide enrichment using immobilized metal affinity chromatography and mass spectrometry, we isolated and identified 974 unique phosphorylation sites on 499 proteins, many of which are novel. To further explore the significance of specific phosphorylation sites, we used isobaric peptide labels and determined the absolute quantity of both phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated peptides of candidate phosphoproteins and estimated phosphorylation stoichiometry. The analyses of phosphorylation dynamics using differentially stimulated synaptic terminal preparations revealed activity-dependent changes in phosphorylation stoichiometry of target proteins. Using this method, we were able to differentiate between distinct isoforms of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMKII) and identify a novel activity-regulated phosphorylation site on the glutamate receptor subunit GluR1. Together these data illustrate that mass spectrometry-based methods can be used to determine activity-dependent changes in phosphorylation stoichiometry on candidate phosphopeptides following large scale phosphoproteome analysis of brain tissue. PMID: 
5. Protein phosphorylation is a complex network of signaling and regulatory events that affects virtually every cellular process. Our understanding of the nature of this network as a whole remains limited, largely because of an array of technical challenges in the isolation and high-throughput sequencing of phosphorylated species. In the present work, we demonstrate that a combination of tandem phosphopeptide enrichment methods, high performance MS, and optimized database search/data filtering strategies is a powerful tool for surveying the phosphoproteome. Using our integrated analytical platform, we report the identification of 5,635 nonredundant phosphorylation sites from 2,328 proteins from mouse liver. From this list of sites, we extracted both novel and known motifs for specific Ser/Thr kinases including a "dipolar" motif. We also found that C-terminal phosphorylation was more frequent than at any other location and that the distribution of potential kinases for these sites was unique. Finally, we identified double phosphorylation motifs that may be involved in ordered phosphorylation. PMID: