Tag Content
UniProt Accession
Theoretical PI
Molecular Weight
24942 Da  
Genbank Nucleotide ID
Genbank Protein ID
Gene Name
Gene Synonyms/Alias
Protein Name
Casein kinase II subunit beta 
Protein Synonyms/Alias
CK II beta Phosvitin; 
Mus musculus (Mouse) 
NCBI Taxonomy ID
Chromosome Location
View in Ensembl genome browser  
Function in Stage
Function in Cell Type
Probability (GAS) of Function in Spermatogenesis
The probability was calculated by GAS algorithm, ranging from 0 to 1. The closer it is to 1, the more possibly it functions in spermatogenesis.
Temporarily unavailable 
Abstract of related literatures

2. cDNAs encoding the beta subunit of pig and mouse CKII were isolated. The porcine cDNA was expressed as a fusion protein in Escherichia coli and used for the production of anti-CKII-beta subunit specific antibodies. PMID: [2015307] 

3. The mouse protein kinase CK2 beta subunit gene (Csnk2b) is composed of seven exons contained within 7874 bp. The exon and intron lengths extend from 76 to 321 and 111 to 1272 bp, respectively. The lengths of the murine coding exons correspond exactly to the lengths of the exons in the human CK2 beta gene. Both genes contain a first untranslated exon. Also, the promoter regions from the human and murine CK2 beta gene share some common features, e.g., they contain neither a TATA nor a CAAT box, exon 1 is flanked by a cluster of CpG dinucleotides and recognition sequences for the HpaII restriction endonuclease, and several blocks of sequence in the 5' flanking region are conserved between mouse and human. Despite all of these common features, one of the most striking differences found concerns the human CK2 alpha subunit binding domain at position -170 to -239 of the human gene. This domain has no counterpart in the murine gene. Hence, regulation of transcription of the CK2 beta gene by the catalytic CK2 alpha subunit as was described by Robitzki et al. (J. Biol. Chem. 268: 5694-5703, 1993) for the human gene cannot be considered a general regulatory mechanism. PMID: [8530080] 

4. In mammals, the Major Histocompatibility Complex class I and II gene clusters are separated by an approximately 700-kb stretch of sequence called the MHC class III region, which has been associated with susceptibility to numerous diseases. To facilitate understanding of this medically important and architecturally interesting portion of the genome, we have sequenced and analyzed both the human and mouse class III regions. The cross-species comparison has facilitated the identification of 60 genes in human and 61 in mouse, including a potential RNA gene for which the introns are more conserved across species than the exons. Delineation of global organization, gene structure, alternative splice forms, protein similarities, and potential cis-regulatory elements leads to several conclusions: (1) The human MHC class III region is the most gene-dense region of the human genome: >14% of the sequence is coding, approximately 72% of the region is transcribed, and there is an average of 8.5 genes per 100 kb. (2) Gene sizes, number of exons, and intergenic distances are for the most part similar in both species, implying that interspersed repeats have had little impact in disrupting the tight organization of this densely packed set of genes. (3) The region contains a heterogeneous mixture of genes, only a few of which have a clearly defined and proven function. Although many of the genes are of ancient origin, some appear to exist only in mammals and fish, implying they might be specific to vertebrates. (4) Conserved noncoding sequences are found primarily in or near the 5'-UTR or the first intron of genes, and seldom in the intergenic regions. Many of these conserved blocks are likely to be cis-regulatory elements. PMID: [14656967] 

5. This study describes comprehensive polling of transcription start and termination sites and analysis of previously unidentified full-length complementary DNAs derived from the mouse genome. We identify the 5' and 3' boundaries of 181,047 transcripts with extensive variation in transcripts arising from alternative promoter usage, splicing, and polyadenylation. There are 16,247 new mouse protein-coding transcripts, including 5154 encoding previously unidentified proteins. Genomic mapping of the transcriptome reveals transcriptional forests, with overlapping transcription on both strands, separated by deserts in which few transcripts are observed. The data provide a comprehensive platform for the comparative analysis of mammalian transcriptional regulation in differentiation and development. PMID: [16141072] 

6. The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline. PMID: [15489334] 

7. Protein kinase CK2 (formerly casein kinase II) is a serine/threonine kinase overexpressed in many human tumors, transformed cell lines, and rapidly proliferating tissues. Recent data have shown that many cancers involve inappropriate reactivation of Wnt signaling through ectopic expression of Wnts themselves, as has been seen in a number of human breast cancers, or through mutation of intermediates in the Wnt pathway, such as adenomatous polyposis coli or beta-catenin, as described in colon and other cancers. Wnts are secreted factors that are important in embryonic development, but overexpression of certain Wnts, such as Wnt-1, leads to proliferation and transformation of cells. We report that upon stable transfection of Wnt-1 into the mouse mammary epithelial cell line C57MG, morphological changes and increased proliferation are accompanied by increased levels of CK2, as well as of beta-catenin. CK2 and beta-catenin co-precipitate with the Dvl proteins, which are Wnt signaling intermediates. A major phosphoprotein of the size of beta-catenin appears in in vitro kinase reactions performed on the Dvl immunoprecipitates. In vitro translated beta-catenin, Dvl-2, and Dvl-3 are phosphorylated by CK2. The selective CK2 inhibitor apigenin blocks proliferation of Wnt-1-transfected cells, abrogates phosphorylation of beta-catenin, and reduces beta-catenin and Dvl protein levels. These results demonstrate that endogenous CK2 is a positive regulator of Wnt signaling and growth of mammary epithelial cells. PMID: [10806215] 

8. Casein kinase 2 (CK2) is a ubiquitous, multifunctional eukaryotic serine/threonine kinase that phosphorylates an array of proteins. CK2 is a heterotetramer composed of two catalytic (alpha,alpha(')) and two regulatory (beta) subunits. CK2 plays an essential role in regulatory pathways in cell transformation and proliferation. But the role and function of the individual subunits of CK2, which are not in the holoenzyme, are not yet clear. Northern blot analysis reveals the highest CK2beta activity in mouse testicles and brain. By employing a yeast two-hybrid screen to identify the proteins that interact with CK2beta, we have isolated a cDNA clone encoding a 14-kDa protein with homology to dynein light chains and have designated it as Tctex4. CK2beta interacts specifically with Tctex4 both in a yeast two-hybrid system and in an in vitro interaction assay. Northern blot and in situ hybridization showed that Tctex4 is a novel gene that is expressed in mouse testis. PMID: [12849985] 

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Plays a complex role in regulating the basal catalyticactivity of the alpha subunit (By similarity). Participates in Wntsignaling. 
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Subcellular Location
Tissue Specificity
Gene Ontology
GO IDGO termEvidence
GO:0005737 C:cytoplasm IEA:Compara.
GO:0031519 C:PcG protein complex IEA:Compara.
GO:0005886 C:plasma membrane IEA:Compara.
GO:0005956 C:protein kinase CK2 complex IEA:InterPro.
GO:0046872 F:metal ion binding IEA:UniProtKB-KW.
GO:0019887 F:protein kinase regulator activity IEA:InterPro.
GO:0033211 P:adiponectin-mediated signaling pathway IEA:Compara.
GO:0061154 P:endothelial tube morphogenesis IEA:Compara.
GO:0043537 P:negative regulation of blood vessel endothelial cell migration IEA:Compara.
GO:0032927 P:positive regulation of activin receptor signaling pathway IEA:Compara.
GO:0010862 P:positive regulation of pathway-restricted SMAD protein phosphorylation IEA:Compara.
GO:0045859 P:regulation of protein kinase activity IEA:GOC.
GO:0016055 P:Wnt receptor signaling pathway IEA:UniProtKB-KW.
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IPR016149;    Casein_kin_II_reg-sub_a-hlx.
IPR016150;    Casein_kin_II_reg-sub_b-sht.
IPR000704;    Casein_kinase_II_reg-sub.
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PF01214;    CK_II_beta;    1.
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SM01085;    CK_II_beta;    1.
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PS01101;    CK2_BETA;    1.
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PR00472;    CASNKINASEII.;   
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Created Date
Record Type
GAS predicted 
Sequence Annotation
CHAIN         1    215       Casein kinase II subunit beta.
REGION      188    193       Interaction with alpha subunit (By
COMPBIAS     55     64       Asp/Glu-rich (acidic).
METAL       109    109       Zinc (By similarity).
METAL       114    114       Zinc (By similarity).
METAL       137    137       Zinc (By similarity).
METAL       140    140       Zinc (By similarity).
MOD_RES       2      2       Phosphoserine; by autocatalysis
MOD_RES       3      3       Phosphoserine; by autocatalysis (By
MOD_RES       4      4       Phosphoserine (By similarity).
MOD_RES       8      8       Phosphoserine (By similarity).
MOD_RES      69     69       Phosphoserine (By similarity).
MOD_RES     145    145       Phosphothreonine (By similarity).
MOD_RES     197    197       Phosphotyrosine (By similarity).
MOD_RES     205    205       Phosphoserine (By similarity).
MOD_RES     209    209       Phosphoserine (By similarity).
MOD_RES     212    212       N6-acetyllysine (By similarity).
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Nucleotide Sequence
Length: 914 bp   Go to nucleotide: FASTA
Protein Sequence
Length: 215 bp   Go to amino acid: FASTA
The verified Protein-Protein interaction information
Gene Symbol Ref Databases
Other Protein-Protein interaction resources
String database  
View Microarray data