0.782520253 The probability was calculated by GAS algorithm, ranging from 0 to 1. The closer it is to 1, the more possibly it functions in spermatogenesis.
Abstract of related literatures
1. Recently, we have shown that the delta subunit of the cGMP phosphodiesterase (PDE delta) interacts with the retinitis pigmentosa guanine regulator (RPGR). Here, using the two-hybrid system, we identify a member of the Arf-like protein family of Ras-related GTP-binding proteins, Arl3, that interacts with PDE delta. The interaction was verified by fluorescence spectroscopy and co-immunoprecipitation. Arl3 features an unusually low affinity for guanine nucleotides, with a KD of 24 nM for GDP and 48 microM for GTP. Fluorescence spectroscopy shows that PDE delta binds and specifically stabilizes the GTP-bound form of Arl3 by strongly decreasing the dissociation rate of GTP. Thus, PDE delta is an effector of Arl3 and could provide a novel nucleotide exchange mechanism by which PDE delta stabilizes Arl3 in its active GTP-bound form. PMID: 
2. The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline. PMID: 
3. Arf-like proteins (Arl) share certain characteristic features with the Arf subfamily of Ras superfamily proteins, but their function is unknown. Here, we show by a variety of spectroscopic techniques that Arl2, unlike most other Ras-related proteins, has micromolar rather than picomolar affinity for nucleotides. As a consequence of low affinity, nucleotide dissociation rates are rather fast, arguing that it is not regulated by guanine nucleotide exchange factors. Arl2 is isolated as prey in a yeast double hybrid screen using phosphodiesterase 6delta (PDEdelta) as bait. This interaction is dependent on GTP, and the binding of PDEdelta substantially stabilizes GTP binding, increasing affinity and decreasing dissociation rates by a similar factor. Among all Arl proteins tested, PDEdelta only interacted with the closely related proteins Arl2 and Arl3, strongly suggesting that Arl2/3 are specific regulators of PDEdelta. PMID: 
Based on sequence similarities, Arf-like (ARL) proteins have been assigned to the Arf subfamily of the superfamily of Ras-related GTP binding proteins. They have been identified in several isoforms in a wide variety of species. Their cellular function is unclear, but they are proposed to regulate intracellular transport. PMID: 
5. The retinitis pigmentosa 2 (RP2) gene is responsible for a particular variant of X chromosome-linked eye disease. Previously, RP2 was shown to bind the GTP form of the small G protein Arf-like 3 (Arl3), thus qualifying as an effector. Here we present the Arl3-GppNHp-RP2 complex structure, which shows features resembling complexes with GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs). Biochemical analysis showing a 90,000-fold stimulation of the GTPase reaction together with the structure of an Arl3-GDP-AlF4--RP2 transition state complex showed that RP2 is an efficient GAP for Arl3, with structural features similar to other GAPs. Furthermore, the effect of mutations in patients with retinitis pigmentosa correlated with their effect on catalysis, in particular the mutation of the arginine finger of RP2. The cognate G protein-GAP pair is conserved in yeast as Cin4-Cin2, and the ability of RP2 to act as a GAP can be correlated with its ability to complement a CIN2-deletion phenotype. PMID: 
Small GTP-binding protein which cycles between aninactive GDP-bound and an active GTP-bound form, and the rate ofcycling is regulated by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEF)and GTPase-activating proteins (GAP). Required for normalcytokinesis and cilia signaling. Required for targeting proteinssuch as NPHP3 to the ciliary membrane by releasing myristoylatedNPHP3 from UNC119B cargo adapter into the cilium (By similarity).Requires assistance from GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) likeRP2 and PDE6D, in order to cycle between inactive GDP-bound andactive GTP-bound forms.