0.992502125 The probability was calculated by GAS algorithm, ranging from 0 to 1. The closer it is to 1, the more possibly it functions in spermatogenesis.
Abstract of related literatures
1. SV40 and polyoma virus induce a mitotic host reaction in confluent, Go-arrested primary mouse kidney cell cultures. To define the primary effects of infection we constructed a cDNA library corresponding to polyA+ mRNA isolated shortly after onset of polyoma T-antigen synthesis. By differential screening of the library we have isolated and then sequenced cDNA recombinant 24p3; determined by Northern blotting, 24p3 mRNA steady state levels increased in parallel with polyoma and SV40 T-antigen synthesis. Since this rapid and early increase was particularly striking (14-20 fold) in SV40-infected cells, we studied the molecular mechanism of induction in this virus-cell system. We show that wt SV40 large T-antigen is required for the increase in 24p3 mRNA levels. The results tend to exclude that this increase is due to an SV40-induced stabilization of the 24p3 mRNA, or to an SV40-induced stimulation of transcription of the 24p3 gene; they are compatible with the working hypothesis that SV40 large T-antigen increases the efficiency of processing, possibly splicing, of the 24p3 pre-mRNA. The biological implications of these results are discussed. PMID: 
2. We have isolated, sequenced and characterized the mouse 24p3 gene. The 24p3 protein is a member of the lipocalin family comprising secreted transporters of hydrophobic ligands. The 24p3 cDNA had been initially isolated during a search for genes overexpressed during a SV40-induced mitotic reaction [Hraba-Renevey et al., Oncogene 4 (1989) 601-608]. 24p3 comprises six exons, five introns and 793 bp of 5' regulatory region. The transcription start point (tsp) was identified by primer extension. Putative regulatory elements, including a TATA-like box and two glucocorticoid responsive core elements (GRE), have been mapped in the 5'-flanking region. Based on this observation, we examined the effect of a glucocorticoid (dexamethasone, Dex) on 24p3 expression. Dex induced the expression of 24p3 dramatically in the absence of de novo protein synthesis. This activation was further amplified by an apparent autocrine mechanism. Similar results were obtained with retinoic acid. Using the cat reporter gene system, we have shown that the 5'-flanking region of 24p3 confers Dex inducibility. Furthermore, we have identified a 43-bp region of the 24p3 promoter required for the Dex responsiveness. The biological implications are discussed in light of these results. PMID: 
3. This study describes comprehensive polling of transcription start and termination sites and analysis of previously unidentified full-length complementary DNAs derived from the mouse genome. We identify the 5' and 3' boundaries of 181,047 transcripts with extensive variation in transcripts arising from alternative promoter usage, splicing, and polyadenylation. There are 16,247 new mouse protein-coding transcripts, including 5154 encoding previously unidentified proteins. Genomic mapping of the transcriptome reveals transcriptional forests, with overlapping transcription on both strands, separated by deserts in which few transcripts are observed. The data provide a comprehensive platform for the comparative analysis of mammalian transcriptional regulation in differentiation and development. PMID: 
4. The mouse (Mus musculus) is the premier animal model for understanding human disease and development. Here we show that a comprehensive understanding of mouse biology is only possible with the availability of a finished, high-quality genome assembly. The finished clone-based assembly of the mouse strain C57BL/6J reported here has over 175,000 fewer gaps and over 139 Mb more of novel sequence, compared with the earlier MGSCv3 draft genome assembly. In a comprehensive analysis of this revised genome sequence, we are now able to define 20,210 protein-coding genes, over a thousand more than predicted in the human genome (19,042 genes). In addition, we identified 439 long, non-protein-coding RNAs with evidence for transcribed orthologs in human. We analyzed the complex and repetitive landscape of 267 Mb of sequence that was missing or misassembled in the previously published assembly, and we provide insights into the reasons for its resistance to sequencing and assembly by whole-genome shotgun approaches. Duplicated regions within newly assembled sequence tend to be of more recent ancestry than duplicates in the published draft, correcting our initial understanding of recent evolution on the mouse lineage. These duplicates appear to be largely composed of sequence regions containing transposable elements and duplicated protein-coding genes; of these, some may be fixed in the mouse population, but at least 40% of segmentally duplicated sequences are copy number variable even among laboratory mouse strains. Mouse lineage-specific regions contain 3,767 genes drawn mainly from rapidly-changing gene families associated with reproductive functions. The finished mouse genome assembly, therefore, greatly improves our understanding of rodent-specific biology and allows the delineation of ancestral biological functions that are shared with human from derived functions that are not. PMID: 
5. The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline. PMID: 
6. A glycoprotein in mouse uterine luminal fluid was purified to homogeneity via a series of purification steps involving Sephadex G-100 chromatography, Sephadex G-50 chromatography and HPLC on a reverse-phase C18 column, in that order. Automated Edman degradation was unable to determine the N-terminal residue of the glycoprotein and the partial sequences determined from its trypsin digests were found to be identical with the protein sequence deduced from 24p3 cDNA. The core protein and the total amount of carbohydrate together gave a molecular mass of 25.8 kDa. Results from the characterization of the glycopeptide bond indicated the presence of N-linked carbohydrate but no O-linked carbohydrate in the protein, which has two potential sites for N-linked carbohydrate at Asn81 and Asn85, as deduced from analysis of the primary structure. The core protein was shown to have a molecular mass equal to that of the putative protein deduced from cDNA, suggesting that this protein may contain no signal peptide. Results of Northern-blot analysis for various tissues of adult mice revealed that the 24p3 gene was expressed in lung, spleen, uterus, vagina and epididymis. PMID: 
8. Rigorous new methods of protein sequence analysis have been applied to the lipocalins, a diverse family of ligand binding proteins. Using three conserved sequence motifs to search for similar patterns in a large sequence database, the size and composition of this protein family have been defined in an automatic and objective way. It has allowed the identification of an existing sequence, mouse 24p3 protein, as a lipocalin and the possible rejection of other putative members from this protein family. On the basis of this newly discovered homology, a possible function for mouse 24p3 protein is proposed. PMID: 
9. Despite the critical need for iron in many cellular reactions, deletion of the transferrin pathway does not block organogenesis, suggesting the presence of alternative methods to deliver iron. We show that a member of the lipocalin superfamily (24p3/Ngal) delivers iron to the cytoplasm where it activates or represses iron-responsive genes. Iron unloading depends on the cycling of 24p3/Ngal through acidic endosomes, but its pH sensitivity and its subcellular targeting differed from transferrin. Indeed, during the conversion of mesenchyme into epithelia (where we discovered the protein), 24p3/Ngal and transferrin were endocytosed by different cells that characterize different stages of development, and they triggered unique responses. These studies identify an iron delivery pathway active in development and cell physiology. PMID: 
10. Although iron is required to sustain life, its free concentration and metabolism have to be tightly regulated. This is achieved through a variety of iron-binding proteins including transferrin and ferritin. During infection, bacteria acquire much of their iron from the host by synthesizing siderophores that scavenge iron and transport it into the pathogen. We recently demonstrated that enterochelin, a bacterial catecholate siderophore, binds to the host protein lipocalin 2 (ref. 5). Here, we show that this event is pivotal in the innate immune response to bacterial infection. Upon encountering invading bacteria the Toll-like receptors on immune cells stimulate the transcription, translation and secretion of lipocalin 2; secreted lipocalin 2 then limits bacterial growth by sequestrating the iron-laden siderophore. Our finding represents a new component of the innate immune system and the acute phase response to infection. PMID: 
11. The lipocalin mouse 24p3 has been implicated in diverse physiological processes, including apoptosis due to interleukin-3 (IL-3) deprivation and iron transport. Here we report cloning of the 24p3 cell-surface receptor (24p3R). Ectopic 24p3R expression confers on cells the ability to undergo either iron uptake or apoptosis, dependent upon the iron content of the ligand: Iron-loaded 24p3 increases intracellular iron concentration without promoting apoptosis; iron-lacking 24p3 decreases intracellular iron levels, which induces expression of the proapoptotic protein Bim, resulting in apoptosis. Intracellular iron delivery blocks Bim induction and suppresses apoptosis due to 24p3 addition or IL-3 deprivation. We find, unexpectedly, that the BCR-ABL oncoprotein activates expression of 24p3 and represses 24p3R expression, rendering BCR-ABL(+) cells refractory to secreted 24p3. By inhibiting BCR-ABL, imatinib induces 24p3R expression and, consequently, apoptosis. Our results reveal an unanticipated role for intracellular iron regulation in an apoptotic pathway relevant to BCR-ABL-induced myeloproliferative disease and its treatment. PMID: 
12. Diverse functions have been reported for lipocalin 2. To investigate these functions in vivo, we generated gene-targeted lipocalin 2-deficient mice (Lcn2-/- mice). In vitro studies have suggested that lipocalin 2 is important for cellular apoptosis induced by IL-3 withdrawal, and for the induction of kidney differentiation during embryogenesis. Analysis of Lcn2-/- mice showed normal cell death upon IL-3 withdrawal and normal kidney development. However, we found that Lcn2-/- mice exhibited an increased susceptibility to bacterial infections, in keeping with the proposed function of lipocalin 2 in iron sequestration. Neutrophils isolated from Lcn2-/- mice showed significantly less bacteriostatic activity compared with WT controls. The bacteriostatic property of the WT neutrophils was abolished by the addition of exogenous iron, indicating that the main function of lipocalin 2 in the antibacterial innate immune response is to limit this essential element. Another important function ascribed to lipocalin 2 has been its protective role against kidney ischemia-reperfusion injury. We analyzed Lcn2-/- mice using a mouse model for severe renal failure and could not detect any significant differences compared with their WT littermates. PMID: 
13. Intracellular iron homeostasis is critical for survival and proliferation. Lipocalin 24p3 is an iron-trafficking protein that binds iron through association with a bacterial siderophore, such as enterobactin, or a postulated mammalian siderophore. Here, we show that the iron-binding moiety of the 24p3-associated mammalian siderophore is 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2,5-DHBA), which is similar to 2,3-DHBA, the iron-binding component of enterobactin. We find that the murine enzyme responsible for 2,5-DHBA synthesis, BDH2, is the homolog of bacterial EntA, which catalyzes 2,3-DHBA production during enterobactin biosynthesis. RNA interference-mediated knockdown of BDH2 results in siderophore depletion. Mammalian cells lacking the siderophore accumulate abnormally high amounts of cytoplasmic iron, resulting in elevated levels of reactive oxygen species, whereas the mitochondria are iron deficient. Siderophore-depleted mammalian cells and zebrafish embryos fail to synthesize heme, an iron-dependent mitochondrial process. Our results reveal features of intracellular iron homeostasis that are conserved from bacteria through humans. PMID: 
Iron-trafficking protein involved in multiple processessuch as apoptosis, innate immunity and renal development. Bindsiron through association with 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2,5-DHBA), a siderophore that shares structural similarities withbacterial enterobactin, and delivers or removes iron from thecell, depending on the context. Iron-bound form (holo-24p3) isinternalized following binding to the SLC22A17 (24p3R) receptor,leading to release of iron and subsequent increase ofintracellular iron concentration. In contrast, association of theiron-free form (apo-24p3) with the SLC22A17 (24p3R) receptor isfollowed by association with an intracellular siderophore, ironchelation and iron transfer to the extracellular medium, therebyreducing intracellular iron concentration. Involved in apoptosisdue to interleukin-3 (IL3) deprivation: iron-loaded form increasesintracellular iron concentration without promoting apoptosis,while iron-free form decreases intracellular iron levels, inducingexpression of the proapoptotic protein BCL2L11/BIM, resulting inapoptosis. Involved in innate immunity, possibly by sequestratingiron, leading to limit bacterial growth.