Tag Content
UniProt Accession
Theoretical PI
Molecular Weight
67840 Da  
Genbank Nucleotide ID
Genbank Protein ID
Gene Name
Gene Synonyms/Alias
Protein Name
Adenosine deaminase domain-containing protein 1 
Protein Synonyms/Alias
Testis nuclear RNA-binding protein; 
Mus musculus (Mouse) 
NCBI Taxonomy ID
Chromosome Location
View in Ensembl genome browser  
Function in Stage
Function in Cell Type
Probability (GAS) of Function in Spermatogenesis
The probability was calculated by GAS algorithm, ranging from 0 to 1. The closer it is to 1, the more possibly it functions in spermatogenesis.
Temporarily unavailable 
Abstract of related literatures
1. In a molecular screen for cDNAs that encode protamine RNA-binding proteins, we obtained seven independent clones that encode Tenr, a testis nuclear RNA-binding protein. Tenr is a 72-kDa protein that has one copy of a previously described RNA-binding domain. Northwestern blotting experiments showed that a maltose-binding protein-Tenr fusion binds to a variety of RNAs in vitro and that it does not bind to single-stranded or double-stranded DNA. The Tenr gene is transcribed exclusively in the testis, and its mRNA is restricted to cells from the pachytene spermatocyte stage through the round spermatid stage. Immunolocalization of the Tenr protein within the testis showed that it is first detected postmeiotically, demonstrating that the Tenr mRNA is under translational control. The Tenr protein is localized to round and early elongating spermatid cells, and confocal microscopy revealed a lattice-like nuclear distribution suggesting association with the nuclear scaffold. We suggest that the Tenr protein may be involved in testis-specific nuclear posttranscriptional processes such as heterogeneous nuclear RNA (hnRNA) packaging, alternative splicing, or nuclear/cytoplasmic transport of mRNAs. PMID: [7543294] 

2. The mouse (Mus musculus) is the premier animal model for understanding human disease and development. Here we show that a comprehensive understanding of mouse biology is only possible with the availability of a finished, high-quality genome assembly. The finished clone-based assembly of the mouse strain C57BL/6J reported here has over 175,000 fewer gaps and over 139 Mb more of novel sequence, compared with the earlier MGSCv3 draft genome assembly. In a comprehensive analysis of this revised genome sequence, we are now able to define 20,210 protein-coding genes, over a thousand more than predicted in the human genome (19,042 genes). In addition, we identified 439 long, non-protein-coding RNAs with evidence for transcribed orthologs in human. We analyzed the complex and repetitive landscape of 267 Mb of sequence that was missing or misassembled in the previously published assembly, and we provide insights into the reasons for its resistance to sequencing and assembly by whole-genome shotgun approaches. Duplicated regions within newly assembled sequence tend to be of more recent ancestry than duplicates in the published draft, correcting our initial understanding of recent evolution on the mouse lineage. These duplicates appear to be largely composed of sequence regions containing transposable elements and duplicated protein-coding genes; of these, some may be fixed in the mouse population, but at least 40% of segmentally duplicated sequences are copy number variable even among laboratory mouse strains. Mouse lineage-specific regions contain 3,767 genes drawn mainly from rapidly-changing gene families associated with reproductive functions. The finished mouse genome assembly, therefore, greatly improves our understanding of rodent-specific biology and allows the delineation of ancestral biological functions that are shared with human from derived functions that are not. PMID: [19468303] 

3. The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline. PMID: [15489334] 

4. This study describes comprehensive polling of transcription start and termination sites and analysis of previously unidentified full-length complementary DNAs derived from the mouse genome. We identify the 5' and 3' boundaries of 181,047 transcripts with extensive variation in transcripts arising from alternative promoter usage, splicing, and polyadenylation. There are 16,247 new mouse protein-coding transcripts, including 5154 encoding previously unidentified proteins. Genomic mapping of the transcriptome reveals transcriptional forests, with overlapping transcription on both strands, separated by deserts in which few transcripts are observed. The data provide a comprehensive platform for the comparative analysis of mammalian transcriptional regulation in differentiation and development. PMID: [16141072] 

5. Type 1 diabetes in the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse arises as a consequence of T cell-mediated destruction of the insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas. Although little is known of the events that initiate and subsequently drive beta-cell destruction it is clear that the entire process is under complex genetic control. At present 19 loci have been mapped that influence the development of diabetes either at the level of initiation of insulitis or at the level of progression from insulitis to overt diabetes, or both. Previously, we have mapped one of these loci, Idd3, to a 0.35-cM interval on proximal mouse chromosome 3. In the present study we have narrowed the map position of this locus to an interval of 0.15 cM by a combination of novel congenic strains and an ancestral haplotype analysis approach. We have constructed a physical contig in bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones across the minimal interval. Restriction mapping of the BAC contig placed the maximum size of the Idd3 interval at 780 kb between the markers D3Nds36 and D3Nds76. To refine further the Idd3 interval we developed a series of novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and carried out haplotype analysis on DNA from mouse strains known to carry either Idd3 susceptibility or protective alleles. This haplotype analysis identified a 145-kb segment of ancestral DNA between the microsatellite marker D3Nds6 and the SNP 81.3. One haplotype of this ancestral segment of DNA is found in mouse strains carrying an Idd3 susceptibility allele and another is found in mouse strains carrying an Idd3 protective allelle. Within the 780-kb congenically defined interval this 145-kb segment represents the most likely location for Idd3. The Il2 gene, which encodes the cytokine interleukin 2 (IL2), maps to this interval and is a strong candidate for Idd3. To investigate whether sequence variation exists in the promoter region of the Il2 gene, which might alter its expression, we sequenced the promoter region of the Il2 gene from mouse strains carrying either an Idd3 susceptibility or resistance allele. Two sequence variants were identified, neither of which fell in known regulatory elements within the Il2 promoter. In agreement with this observation steady-state Il2 mRNA levels showed no variation between susceptible and resistant mouse strains. These data suggest that the profound protection from diabetes seen in congenic mice carrying an Idd3 protective allele is unlikely to be due to differences in the level of expression of the Il2 gene. Instead, all of the current data support our hypothesis that Idd3 corresponds to amino acid variation at the amino terminus of Il2. PMID: [10779485] 

6. Gametes rely heavily on posttranscriptional control for their differentiation. Translational control, alternative splicing, and alternative processing of the 3' end of mRNAs are all common during spermatogenesis. Tenr, which encodes a highly conserved 72-kDa protein, is expressed solely in germ cells of the testis from the mid-pachytene stage until the elongating spermatid stage. TENR contains a double-stranded RNA binding domain, is localized to the nucleus, and is phylogenetically related to a family of adenosine deaminases involved in RNA editing. We show here that targeted mutation of the Tenr gene causes male sterility. Tenr mutant males have a reduced sperm count, and Tenr-/- sperm show a decrease in motility and an increase in malformed heads. Despite their sterility, some epididymal sperm from Tenr mutants have normal morphology. The ability of Tenr mutant sperm to fertilize zona pellucida-free oocytes and to bind to, but not fertilize, zona pellucida-intact oocytes suggests that the normal-appearing sperm are not able to penetrate the zona pellucida. These data suggest that TENR plays an essential function in spermatid morphogenesis. PMID: [15649457] 

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Plays a role in spermatogenesis. Binds to RNA but not toDNA. 
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Subcellular Location
Tissue Specificity
Testis-specific. Detected in round spermatidcells from stage II-XI (at protein level). Expressed in germ cellsfrom mid-pachytene spermatocytes to mid-round spermatids. 
Gene Ontology
GO IDGO termEvidence
GO:0005634 C:nucleus IDA:MGI.
GO:0004000 F:adenosine deaminase activity IEA:InterPro.
GO:0003725 F:double-stranded RNA binding IEA:InterPro.
GO:0003723 F:RNA binding IDA:MGI.
GO:0007275 P:multicellular organismal development IEA:UniProtKB-KW.
GO:0006396 P:RNA processing IEA:InterPro.
GO:0007286 P:spermatid development IMP:MGI.
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IPR002466;    A_deamin.
IPR001159;    Ds-RNA-bd.
IPR014720;    dsRNA-bd-like.
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PF02137;    A_deamin;    1.
PF00035;    dsrm;    1.
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SM00552;    ADEAMc;    1.
SM00358;    DSRM;    1.
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PS50141;    A_DEAMIN_EDITASE;    1.
PS50137;    DS_RBD;    1.
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Created Date
Record Type
GAS predicted 
Sequence Annotation
CHAIN         1    619       Adenosine deaminase domain-containing
                             protein 1.
DOMAIN      138    206       DRBM.
DOMAIN      291    617       A to I editase.
MOD_RES     269    269       Phosphotyrosine (By similarity).
VAR_SEQ     220    222       PPP -> KGN (in isoform 2).
VAR_SEQ     223    619       Missing (in isoform 2).
VAR_SEQ     619    619       M -> DKLRRKYFDKFMGWLFQI (in isoform 3).
CONFLICT    255    255       V -> L (in Ref. 1; CAA59168).
CONFLICT    362    362       I -> Y (in Ref. 1; CAA59168).
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Nucleotide Sequence
Length: 1967 bp   Go to nucleotide: FASTA
Protein Sequence
Length: 619 bp   Go to amino acid: FASTA
The verified Protein-Protein interaction information
Gene Symbol Ref Databases
Other Protein-Protein interaction resources
String database  
View Microarray data