0.86578576 The probability was calculated by GAS algorithm, ranging from 0 to 1. The closer it is to 1, the more possibly it functions in spermatogenesis.
Abstract of related literatures
1. This study describes comprehensive polling of transcription start and termination sites and analysis of previously unidentified full-length complementary DNAs derived from the mouse genome. We identify the 5' and 3' boundaries of 181,047 transcripts with extensive variation in transcripts arising from alternative promoter usage, splicing, and polyadenylation. There are 16,247 new mouse protein-coding transcripts, including 5154 encoding previously unidentified proteins. Genomic mapping of the transcriptome reveals transcriptional forests, with overlapping transcription on both strands, separated by deserts in which few transcripts are observed. The data provide a comprehensive platform for the comparative analysis of mammalian transcriptional regulation in differentiation and development. PMID: 
2. The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline. PMID: 
3. A major goal of the Alliance for Cellular Signaling is to elaborate the components of signal transduction networks in model cell systems, including murine B lymphocytes. Due to the importance of protein phosphorylation in many aspects of cell signaling, the initial efforts have focused on the identification of phosphorylated proteins. In order to identify serine- and threonine-phosphorylated proteins on a proteome-wide basis, WEHI-231 cells were treated with calyculin A, a serine/threonine phosphatase inhibitor, to induce high levels of protein phosphorylation. Proteins were extracted from whole-cell lysates and digested with trypsin. Phosphorylated peptides were then enriched using immobilized metal affinity chromatography and identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. A total of 107 proteins and 193 phosphorylation sites were identified using these methods. Forty-two of these proteins have been reported to be phosphorylated, but only some of them have been detected in B cells. Fifty-four of the identified proteins were not previously known to be phosphorylated. The remaining 11 phosphoproteins have previously only been characterized as novel cDNA or genomic sequences. Many of the identified proteins were phosphorylated at multiple sites. The proteins identified in this study significantly expand the repertoire of proteins known to be phosphorylated in B cells. The number of newly identified phosphoproteins indicates that B cell signaling pathways utilizing protein phosphorylation are likely to be more complex than previously appreciated. PMID: 
4. Kinases play a prominent role in tumor development, pointing to the presence of specific phosphorylation patterns in tumor tissues. Here, we investigate whether recently developed high resolution mass spectrometric (MS) methods for proteome and phosphoproteome analysis can also be applied to solid tumors. As tumor model, we used TG3 mutant mice carrying skin melanomas. At total of 100 microg of solid tumor lysate yielded a melanoma proteome of 4443 identified proteins, including at least 88 putative melanoma markers previously found by cDNA microarray technology. Analysis of 2 mg of lysate from dissected melanoma with titansphere chromatography and 8 mg with strong cation exchange together resulted in the identification of more than 5600 phosphorylation sites on 2250 proteins. The phosphoproteome included many hits from pathways important in melanoma. One-month storage at -80 degrees C did not significantly decrease the number of identified phosphorylation sites. Thus, solid tumor can be analyzed by MS-based proteomics with similar efficiency as cell culture models and in amounts compatible with biopsies. PMID: