0.896089638 The probability was calculated by GAS algorithm, ranging from 0 to 1. The closer it is to 1, the more possibly it functions in spermatogenesis.
Abstract of related literatures
1. This study describes comprehensive polling of transcription start and termination sites and analysis of previously unidentified full-length complementary DNAs derived from the mouse genome. We identify the 5' and 3' boundaries of 181,047 transcripts with extensive variation in transcripts arising from alternative promoter usage, splicing, and polyadenylation. There are 16,247 new mouse protein-coding transcripts, including 5154 encoding previously unidentified proteins. Genomic mapping of the transcriptome reveals transcriptional forests, with overlapping transcription on both strands, separated by deserts in which few transcripts are observed. The data provide a comprehensive platform for the comparative analysis of mammalian transcriptional regulation in differentiation and development. PMID: 
2. The mouse (Mus musculus) is the premier animal model for understanding human disease and development. Here we show that a comprehensive understanding of mouse biology is only possible with the availability of a finished, high-quality genome assembly. The finished clone-based assembly of the mouse strain C57BL/6J reported here has over 175,000 fewer gaps and over 139 Mb more of novel sequence, compared with the earlier MGSCv3 draft genome assembly. In a comprehensive analysis of this revised genome sequence, we are now able to define 20,210 protein-coding genes, over a thousand more than predicted in the human genome (19,042 genes). In addition, we identified 439 long, non-protein-coding RNAs with evidence for transcribed orthologs in human. We analyzed the complex and repetitive landscape of 267 Mb of sequence that was missing or misassembled in the previously published assembly, and we provide insights into the reasons for its resistance to sequencing and assembly by whole-genome shotgun approaches. Duplicated regions within newly assembled sequence tend to be of more recent ancestry than duplicates in the published draft, correcting our initial understanding of recent evolution on the mouse lineage. These duplicates appear to be largely composed of sequence regions containing transposable elements and duplicated protein-coding genes; of these, some may be fixed in the mouse population, but at least 40% of segmentally duplicated sequences are copy number variable even among laboratory mouse strains. Mouse lineage-specific regions contain 3,767 genes drawn mainly from rapidly-changing gene families associated with reproductive functions. The finished mouse genome assembly, therefore, greatly improves our understanding of rodent-specific biology and allows the delineation of ancestral biological functions that are shared with human from derived functions that are not. PMID: 
3. The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline. PMID: 
4. The mouse leucine-rich repeats and WD repeat domain containing 1 (lrwd1) gene is located on chromosome 5qG2 and spans over 13 kilobases. It encodes a novel protein of 648-amino acid protein that shares 78.3% amino acid sequence identity with the human LRWD1 protein. We used an oligopeptide as immunogen to generate an anti-lrwd1 antibody in rabbits. Both Northern and Western blot results indicated that the expression of lrwd1 is testis specific. Immunostaining of mouse testis sections detected high levels of lrwd1 signals in the cytoplasm of primary spermatocytes to mature spermatozoa and much weaker signals in spermatogonia. On mature spermatozoa, the anti-lrwd1 antibody stained strongly the connection region between the head and the neck where the centrosome is located. Additional immunostaining and immunoprecipitation showed colocalization and interaction between lrwd1 and gamma-tubulin respectively, implicating lrwd1 as a candidate centrosomal protein. These results suggest that lrwd1 may play an important role in spermatogenesis. PMID: 
Associated component of the origin recognition complex(ORC) required to recruit and stabilize the ORC complex tochromatin. Probably required for the association of ORC onchromatin during G1 to establish pre-replication complex (preRC)and to heterochromatic sites in post-replicated cells. Binds acombination of DNA and histone methylation repressive marks onheterochromatin: binds histone H3 and H4 trimethylation marksH3K9me3, H3K27me3 and H4K20me3 in a cooperative manner with DNAmethylation. It is unclear whether it recongnizes and binds theserepressive marks by itself or needs additional factors (Bysimilarity).
Nucleus (By similarity). Chromosome,centromere (By similarity). Chromosome, telomere (By similarity).Cytoplasm, cytoskeleton, centrosome. Note=Localizes toheterochromatin during G1 phase. Restricted to centromeres ortelomeres as cells progress though S phase. When cells entermitosis, relocalizes to centromeres (By similarity).