0.794356062 The probability was calculated by GAS algorithm, ranging from 0 to 1. The closer it is to 1, the more possibly it functions in spermatogenesis.
Abstract of related literatures
1. It is well known that cytoskeleton and karyoskeleton proteins are associated with changes in cell shape and with the rearrangement of the dynamic structures involved in cell division and motility. In higher vertebrates, there are three major skeletal protein groups: microfilaments, microtubules and intermediate filaments, each representing a multigene family. Some of these skeletal proteins are expressed in a temporally- and spatially-specific fashion, and they establish cell-specific cytoplasmic and nucleoplasmic organization during development. Here we report the cDNA cloning of a novel 60 kDa skeletal protein from mouse spermatocytes, termed MNS 1 (meiosis-specific nuclear structural protein), whose computer-predicted protein configuration indicates long alpha-helical coiled-coil domains flanked by non-helical terminal domains. Functional characterization of MNS1 by ectopic expression in culture cells indicated that it is a detergent- and high salt-resistant skeletal protein which is involved in organization of the nuclear or perinuclear architecture. The MNS1 protein is specifically expressed at the pachytene stage during spermatogenesis, so that its function may involve the determination and maintenance of the appropriate nuclear morphology during meiotic prophase. PMID: 
2. The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline. PMID: 
3. The ability of macrophages to clear pathogens and elicit a sustained immune response is regulated by various cytokines, including interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma). To investigate the molecular mechanisms by which IFN-gamma modulates phagosome functions, we profiled the changes in composition, abundance, and phosphorylation of phagosome proteins in resting and activated macrophages by using quantitative proteomics and bioinformatics approaches. We identified 2415 phagosome proteins together with 2975 unique phosphorylation sites with a high level of sensitivity. Using network analyses, we determined that IFN-gamma delays phagosomal acquisition of lysosomal hydrolases and peptidases for the gain of antigen presentation. Furthermore, this gain in antigen presentation is dependent on phagosomal networks of the actin cytoskeleton and vesicle-trafficking proteins, as well as Src kinases and calpain proteases. Major histocompatibility complex class I antigen-presentation assays validated the molecular participation of these networks in the enhanced capacity of IFN-gamma-activated macrophages to crosspresent exogenous antigens to CD8(+) T cells. PMID: