Tag Content
UniProt Accession
Theoretical PI
Molecular Weight
49960 Da  
Genbank Nucleotide ID
Genbank Protein ID
Gene Name
Gene Synonyms/Alias
Protein Name
Tubulin alpha-3 chain 
Protein Synonyms/Alias
Alpha-tubulin 3/7; Alpha-tubulin isotype M-alpha-3/7; Tubulin alpha-3/alpha-7 chain; 
Mus musculus (Mouse) 
NCBI Taxonomy ID
Chromosome Location
View in Ensembl genome browser  
Function in Stage
Function in Cell Type
Probability (GAS) of Function in Spermatogenesis
The probability was calculated by GAS algorithm, ranging from 0 to 1. The closer it is to 1, the more possibly it functions in spermatogenesis.
Temporarily unavailable 
Abstract of related literatures
1. Five mouse alpha-tubulin isotypes are described, each distinguished by the presence of unique amino acid substitutions within the coding region. Most, though not all of these isotype-specific amino acids, are clustered at the carboxy terminus. One of the alpha-tubulin isotypes described is expressed exclusively in testis and is encoded by two closely related genes (M alpha 3 and M alpha 7) which have homologous 3' untranslated regions but which differ at multiple third codon positions and in their 5' untranslated regions. We show that a subfamily of alpha-tubulin genes encoding the same testis-specific isotype also exists in humans. Thus, we conclude that the duplication event leading to a pair of genes encoding a testis-specific alpha-tubulin isotype predated the mammalian radiation, and both members of the duplicated sequence have been maintained since species divergence. A second alpha-tubulin gene, M alpha 6, is expressed ubiquitously at a low level, whereas a third gene, M alpha 4, is unique in that it does not encode a carboxy-terminal tyrosine residue. This gene yields two transcripts: a 1.8-kilobase (kb) mRNA that is abundant in muscle and a 2.4-kb mRNA that is abundant in testis. Whereas the 1.8-kb mRNA encodes a distinct alpha-tubulin isotype, the 2.4-kb mRNA is defective in that the methionine residue required for translational initiation is missing. Patterns of developmental expression of the various alpha-tubulin isotypes are presented. Our data support the view that individual tubulin isotypes are capable of conferring functional specificity on different kinds of microtubules. PMID: [3785200] 

2. The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline. PMID: [15489334] 

3. Polyglutamylation of tubulin has been implicated in several functions of microtubules, but the identification of the responsible enzyme(s) has been challenging. We found that the neuronal tubulin polyglutamylase is a protein complex containing a tubulin tyrosine ligase-like (TTLL) protein, TTLL1. TTLL1 is a member of a large family of proteins with a TTL homology domain, whose members could catalyze ligations of diverse amino acids to tubulins or other substrates. In the model protist Tetrahymena thermophila, two conserved types of polyglutamylases were characterized that differ in substrate preference and subcellular localization. PMID: [15890843] 

4. Polyglycylation is a posttranslational modification that generates glycine side chains on proteins. Here we identify a family of evolutionarily conserved glycine ligases that modify tubulin using different enzymatic mechanisms. In mammals, two distinct enzyme types catalyze the initiation and elongation steps of polyglycylation, whereas Drosophila glycylases are bifunctional. We further show that the human elongating glycylase has lost enzymatic activity due to two amino acid changes, suggesting that the functions of protein glycylation could be sufficiently fulfilled by monoglycylation. Depletion of a glycylase in Drosophila using RNA interference results in adult flies with strongly decreased total glycylation levels and male sterility associated with defects in sperm individualization and axonemal maintenance. A more severe RNAi depletion is lethal at early developmental stages, indicating that protein glycylation is essential. Together with the observation that multiple proteins are glycylated, our functional data point towards a general role of glycylation in protein functions. PMID: [19524510] 

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Tubulin is the major constituent of microtubules. Itbinds two moles of GTP, one at an exchangeable site on the betachain and one at a non-exchangeable site on the alpha-chain. 
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Subcellular Location
Cytoplasm, cytoskeleton. 
Tissue Specificity
Alpha-3 and alpha-7 are identical but coded bytwo different genes, they are testis-specific. 
Gene Ontology
GO IDGO termEvidence
GO:0005737 C:cytoplasm IEA:UniProtKB-KW.
GO:0005874 C:microtubule IEA:UniProtKB-KW.
GO:0005525 F:GTP binding IEA:UniProtKB-KW.
GO:0003924 F:GTPase activity IEA:InterPro.
GO:0005198 F:structural molecule activity IEA:InterPro.
GO:0007018 P:microtubule-based movement IEA:InterPro.
GO:0051258 P:protein polymerization IEA:InterPro.
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IPR002452;    Alpha_tubulin.
IPR008280;    Tub_FtsZ_C.
IPR000217;    Tubulin.
IPR018316;    Tubulin/FtsZ_2-layer-sand-dom.
IPR023123;    Tubulin_C.
IPR017975;    Tubulin_CS.
IPR003008;    Tubulin_FtsZ_GTPase.
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PF00091;    Tubulin;    1.
PF03953;    Tubulin_C;    1.
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SM00864;    Tubulin;    1.
SM00865;    Tubulin_C;    1.
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PS00227;    TUBULIN;    1.
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PR01162;    ALPHATUBULIN.;   
PR01161;    TUBULIN.;   
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Created Date
Record Type
GAS predicted 
Sequence Annotation
CHAIN         1    450       Tubulin alpha-3 chain.
NP_BIND     142    148       GTP (Potential).
SITE        450    450       Involved in polymerization (By
MOD_RES      40     40       N6-acetyllysine (By similarity).
MOD_RES     439    439       Phosphoserine (By similarity).
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Nucleotide Sequence
Length: 1482 bp   Go to nucleotide: FASTA
Protein Sequence
Length: 450 bp   Go to amino acid: FASTA
The verified Protein-Protein interaction information
Gene Symbol Ref Databases
Other Protein-Protein interaction resources
String database  
View Microarray data