Tag Content
UniProt Accession
Theoretical PI
Molecular Weight
15748 Da  
Genbank Nucleotide ID
Genbank Protein ID
Gene Name
Gene Synonyms/Alias
Hbb-b2, Hbbt1, Hbbt2 
Protein Name
Protein Synonyms/Alias
SubName: Beta-globinSubName: Hemoglobin subunit beta-1SubName: Hemoglobin subunit beta-2 
Mus musculus (Mouse) 
NCBI Taxonomy ID
Chromosome Location
View in Ensembl genome browser  
Function in Stage
Function in Cell Type
Probability (GAS) of Function in Spermatogenesis
The probability was calculated by GAS algorithm, ranging from 0 to 1. The closer it is to 1, the more possibly it functions in spermatogenesis.
Temporarily unavailable 
Abstract of related literatures
1. Results of electrophoretic surveys have suggested that hemoglobin polymorphism may be maintained by balancing selection in natural populations of house mice, Mus musculus. Here we report a survey of nucleotide variation in the adult globin genes of house mice from South America. We surveyed nucleotide polymorphism in two closely linked alpha-globin paralogs and two closely linked beta-globin paralogs to test whether patterns of variation are consistent with a model of long-term balancing selection. Surprisingly high levels of nucleotide polymorphism at the two beta-globin paralogs were attributable to the segregation of two highly divergent haplotypes, Hbbs (which carries two identical beta-globin paralogs) and Hbbd (which carries two functionally divergent beta-globin paralogs). Interparalog gene conversion on the Hbbs haplotype has produced a highly unusual situation in which the two paralogs are more similar to one another than either one is to its allelic counterpart on the Hbbd haplotype. Levels of nucleotide polymorphism and linkage disequilibrium at the two beta-globin paralogs suggest a complex history of diversity-enhancing selection that may be responsible for long-term maintenance of alternative protein alleles. The alternative two-locus beta-globin haplotypes are associated with pronounced differences in intraerythrocyte glutathione and nitric oxide metabolism, suggesting a possible mechanism for selection on hemoglobin function. PMID: [17660536] 

2. The mouse (Mus musculus) is the premier animal model for understanding human disease and development. Here we show that a comprehensive understanding of mouse biology is only possible with the availability of a finished, high-quality genome assembly. The finished clone-based assembly of the mouse strain C57BL/6J reported here has over 175,000 fewer gaps and over 139 Mb more of novel sequence, compared with the earlier MGSCv3 draft genome assembly. In a comprehensive analysis of this revised genome sequence, we are now able to define 20,210 protein-coding genes, over a thousand more than predicted in the human genome (19,042 genes). In addition, we identified 439 long, non-protein-coding RNAs with evidence for transcribed orthologs in human. We analyzed the complex and repetitive landscape of 267 Mb of sequence that was missing or misassembled in the previously published assembly, and we provide insights into the reasons for its resistance to sequencing and assembly by whole-genome shotgun approaches. Duplicated regions within newly assembled sequence tend to be of more recent ancestry than duplicates in the published draft, correcting our initial understanding of recent evolution on the mouse lineage. These duplicates appear to be largely composed of sequence regions containing transposable elements and duplicated protein-coding genes; of these, some may be fixed in the mouse population, but at least 40% of segmentally duplicated sequences are copy number variable even among laboratory mouse strains. Mouse lineage-specific regions contain 3,767 genes drawn mainly from rapidly-changing gene families associated with reproductive functions. The finished mouse genome assembly, therefore, greatly improves our understanding of rodent-specific biology and allows the delineation of ancestral biological functions that are shared with human from derived functions that are not. PMID: [19468303] 

3. The functional diversification of multigene families may be strongly influenced by mechanisms of concerted evolution such as interparalog gene conversion. The beta-globin gene family of house mice (genus Mus) represents an especially promising system for evaluating the effects of gene conversion on the functional divergence of duplicated genes. Whereas the majority of mammalian species possess tandemly duplicated copies of the adult beta-globin gene that are identical in sequence, natural populations of house mice are often polymorphic for distinct two-locus haplotypes that differ in levels of functional divergence between duplicated beta-globin genes, HBB-T1 and HBB-T2. Here, we use a phylogenetic approach to unravel the complex evolutionary history of the HBB-T1 and HBB-T2 paralogs in a taxonomically diverse set of species in the genus Mus. The main objectives of this study were 1) to reconstruct the evolutionary history of the different HBB haplotypes of house mice, 2) to assess the role of recombinational exchange between HBB-T1 and HBB-T2 in promoting concerted evolution, 3) to assess the role of recombinational exchange between HBB-T1 and HBB-T2 in creating chimeric genes, and 4) to assess the structural basis of hemoglobin isoform differentiation in species that possess distinct HBB paralogs. Results of our phylogenetic survey revealed that the HBB-T1 and HBB-T2 genes in different species of Mus exhibit the full range of evolutionary outcomes with respect to levels of interparalog divergence. At one end of the spectrum, the two identical HBB paralogs on the Hbb(s) haplotype (shared by Mus domesticus, Mus musculus, and Mus spretus) represent a classic example of concerted evolution. At the other end of the spectrum, the two distinct HBB paralogs on the Hbb(d), Hbb(p), Hbb(w1), and Hbb(w2) haplotypes (shared by multiple species in the subgenus Mus) show no trace of gene conversion and are distinguished by a number of functionally important amino acid substitutions. Because the possession of distinct HBB paralogs expands the repertoire of functionally distinct hemoglobin isoforms that can be synthesized during fetal development and postnatal life, variation in the level of functional divergence between HBB-T1 and HBB-T2 may underlie important physiological variation within and among species. PMID: [19675095] 

Back to Top
Back to Top
Subcellular Location
Tissue Specificity
Gene Ontology
GO IDGO termEvidence
GO:0005833 C:hemoglobin complex IEA:InterPro.
GO:0020037 F:heme binding IEA:InterPro.
GO:0019825 F:oxygen binding IEA:InterPro.
GO:0005344 F:oxygen transporter activity IEA:UniProtKB-KW.
Back to Top
IPR000971;    Globin.
IPR009050;    Globin-like.
IPR012292;    Globin_dom.
IPR002337;    Haemoglobin_b.
Back to Top
PF00042;    Globin;    1.
Back to Top
PS01033;    GLOBIN;    1.
Back to Top
PR00814;    BETAHAEM.;   
Back to Top
Created Date
Record Type
GAS predicted 
Sequence Annotation
Nucleotide Sequence
Length: bp   Go to nucleotide: FASTA
Protein Sequence
Length: 147 bp   Go to amino acid: FASTA
The verified Protein-Protein interaction information
Gene Symbol Ref Databases
Other Protein-Protein interaction resources
String database  
View Microarray data