Tag Content
UniProt Accession
Theoretical PI
Molecular Weight
22379 Da  
Genbank Nucleotide ID
Genbank Protein ID
Gene Name
Gene Synonyms/Alias
Tctex1d3, Tctex2, Tctex4 
Protein Name
Tctex1 domain-containing protein 3 
Protein Synonyms/Alias
LC2; T-complex testis-specific protein 2; T-complex testis-specific protein 3; T-complex-associated testis-expressed protein 3;Tcte-3 T-complex-associated testis-expressed protein 4;TCTEX-4 TCTEX-2; 
Mus musculus (Mouse) 
NCBI Taxonomy ID
Chromosome Location
View in Ensembl genome browser  
Function in Stage
Function in Cell Type
Probability (GAS) of Function in Spermatogenesis
The probability was calculated by GAS algorithm, ranging from 0 to 1. The closer it is to 1, the more possibly it functions in spermatogenesis.
Temporarily unavailable 
Abstract of related literatures
1. We have used an approach based on the observation of CpG-rich regions near the 5' end of many genes to screen a panel of cosmids derived from the t-complex and tested candidate sequences for evidence of transcription in a number of different mouse tissues. One gene so identified is expressed specifically in testicular germ cells and maps to a subregion of the t-complex also containing loci involved in transmission ratio distortion and male sterility. The transcript is first detected during the pachytene stage of the first meiotic division, but is expressed in highest levels in the later haploid spermatogenic stages. Sequence analysis verified the existence of a CpG-rich element on the 5' end of the gene and predicts a unique protein species with no significant homologies to those previously determined. PMID: [3653077] 

2. Transmission ratio distortion (TRD) in mouse t-haplotypes remains the most significant example of meiotic drive in vertebrates. While the underlying mechanism that fuels it is still mysterious, TRD is clearly a complex multigene phenomenon. The characterization of Tctex2 (t-complex testis expressed 2) shows it to be one of several candidates for involvement in TRD. Tctex2 maps to the t-complex and encodes a membrane-associated protein found exclusively on the sperm tail. The t-haplotype form of Tctex2 is aberrant in both the level of its expression and its primary amino acid sequence, but is nonetheless translated and transported to its normal location. The multiple amino acid changes in the t-form make it extremely unlikely that it can function normally and, since it is found on sperm tails, suggest that it may actively interfere with the development of normal gamete function in males. The possible role of Tctex2 in t-complex transmission ratio distortion and sterility is discussed. PMID: [7601308] 

3. Casein kinase 2 (CK2) is a ubiquitous, multifunctional eukaryotic serine/threonine kinase that phosphorylates an array of proteins. CK2 is a heterotetramer composed of two catalytic (alpha,alpha(')) and two regulatory (beta) subunits. CK2 plays an essential role in regulatory pathways in cell transformation and proliferation. But the role and function of the individual subunits of CK2, which are not in the holoenzyme, are not yet clear. Northern blot analysis reveals the highest CK2beta activity in mouse testicles and brain. By employing a yeast two-hybrid screen to identify the proteins that interact with CK2beta, we have isolated a cDNA clone encoding a 14-kDa protein with homology to dynein light chains and have designated it as Tctex4. CK2beta interacts specifically with Tctex4 both in a yeast two-hybrid system and in an in vitro interaction assay. Northern blot and in situ hybridization showed that Tctex4 is a novel gene that is expressed in mouse testis. PMID: [12849985] 

4. This study describes comprehensive polling of transcription start and termination sites and analysis of previously unidentified full-length complementary DNAs derived from the mouse genome. We identify the 5' and 3' boundaries of 181,047 transcripts with extensive variation in transcripts arising from alternative promoter usage, splicing, and polyadenylation. There are 16,247 new mouse protein-coding transcripts, including 5154 encoding previously unidentified proteins. Genomic mapping of the transcriptome reveals transcriptional forests, with overlapping transcription on both strands, separated by deserts in which few transcripts are observed. The data provide a comprehensive platform for the comparative analysis of mammalian transcriptional regulation in differentiation and development. PMID: [16141072] 

5. The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline. PMID: [15489334] 

6. The t-complex of the mouse occupies the proximal half of chromosome 17 and contains genes which have profound effects on spermatogenesis. Mutations of several loci in the t-complex appear to interact to cause male sterility or transmission ratio distortion (TRD). By cDNA screening or chromosomal walking we have identified seven genes, which are expressed in the germ cells of testis and map to various regions of the t-complex. These genes were named t-complex testis-expressed (Tctex) genes. An analysis of their expression patterns in testes from +/+, +/t, and t/t mice was done by in situ hybridization and by northern blotting. Six genes begin to be expressed at the pachytene stage: Three of them are more abundant at pachytene stage, while three others are more abundant at postmeiotic stages. One gene is expressed at all the stages of spermatogenesis. Interestingly, four Tctex genes show differences in the amount of transcript between wild-type and t-mutant testes. The chromosomal location and expression pattern imply that Tctex genes might be candidate genes for sterility or TRD. PMID: [1718647] 

7. The Tctex1/Tctex2 family of dynein light chains associates with the intermediate chains at the base of the soluble dynein particle. These components are essential for dynein assembly and participate in specific motor-cargo interactions. To further address the role of these light chains in dynein activity, the structural and biochemical properties of several members of this polypeptide class were examined. Gel filtration chromatography and native gel electrophoresis indicate that recombinant Chlamydomonas flagellar Tctex1 exists as a dimer in solution. Furthermore, yeast two-hybrid analysis suggests that this association also occurs in vivo. In contrast, both murine and Chlamydomonas Tctex2 are monomeric. To investigate protein-protein interactions involving these light chains, outer arm dynein from Chlamydomonas flagella was cross-linked using dimethylpimelimidate. Immunoblot analysis of the resulting products revealed the interaction of LC2 (Tctex2) with LC6, which is closely related to the highly conserved LC8 protein found in many enzyme systems, including dynein. Northern dot blot analysis demonstrated that Tctex1/Tctex2 family light chains are differentially expressed both in a tissue-specific and developmentally regulated manner in humans. These data provide further support for the existence of functionally distinct populations of cytoplasmic dynein with differing light chain content. PMID: [11278908] 

Back to Top
May be an accessory component of axonemal dynein andcytoplasmic dynein 1. Candidate for involvement in male sterility. 
Back to Top
Subcellular Location
Cytoplasm, cytoskeleton (Probable).Cytoplasmic granule. Membrane; Peripheral membrane protein.Note=Found on the surface of sperm tail. Stored in cytoplasmicgranules during spermatogenesis. 
Tissue Specificity
Expressed in testis (at protein level).Expressed at the pachyten stage of the first meiotic division andin later haploid spermatogenic stages. 
Gene Ontology
GO IDGO termEvidence
GO:0005737 C:cytoplasm IEA:UniProtKB-KW.
GO:0030286 C:dynein complex IEA:UniProtKB-KW.
GO:0016020 C:membrane IEA:UniProtKB-SubCell.
GO:0005874 C:microtubule IEA:UniProtKB-KW.
GO:0003774 F:motor activity IEA:UniProtKB-KW.
GO:0006810 P:transport IEA:UniProtKB-KW.
Back to Top
IPR005334;    Tctex.
Back to Top
PF03645;    Tctex-1;    1.
Back to Top
Created Date
Record Type
GAS predicted 
Sequence Annotation
CHAIN         1    191       Tctex1 domain-containing protein 3.
VAR_SEQ     104    155       Missing (in isoform 2).
VARIANT      17     17       Q -> E (in T-haplotype).
VARIANT      23     23       R -> S (in T-haplotype).
VARIANT      26     26       K -> R (in T-haplotype).
VARIANT      41     43       ERL -> P (in T-haplotype).
VARIANT      48     48       H -> R (in T-haplotype).
VARIANT      52     52       Y -> F (in T-haplotype).
VARIANT      60     60       S -> A (in T-haplotype).
VARIANT      64     64       V -> S (requires 2 nucleotide
                             substitutions; in T-haplotype).
VARIANT      93     93       L -> S (in T-haplotype).
VARIANT     125    125       G -> R (in T-haplotype).
VARIANT     153    153       A -> G (in T-haplotype).
CONFLICT      6      8       RMA -> QLR (in Ref. 1; AAA40413).
CONFLICT     98     98       I -> V (in Ref. 1; AAA40413).
                             Ref. 1; AAA40413).
Back to Top
Nucleotide Sequence
Length: 714 bp   Go to nucleotide: FASTA
Protein Sequence
Length: 191 bp   Go to amino acid: FASTA
The verified Protein-Protein interaction information
Gene Symbol Ref Databases
Other Protein-Protein interaction resources
String database  
View Microarray data